Orestis Tsonis,1 Fani Gkrozou,2 Zoi Barmpalia,1 Annamaria Makopoulou,3 Vassiliki Siafaka4
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3School of Psychology, College of Human Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, UK; 4Department of Speech and Language Therapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Correspondence: Orestis Tsonis
Senior Registrar in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Stavrou Niarchou Avenue, Ioannina, 45500, Greece
Objective: This narrative review aims to identify alternative ways to improve the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea (PD).
Background: PD refers to endometrial painful cramps during the premenstrual period. This condition…